Information and History of Rome

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Information and History of Rome

Post by Doyler on Sat Nov 13, 2010 1:24 pm

History
According to the more or less legendary traditional accounts, Rome's republican era began after the overthrow of the last Roman King of the Tarquin monarchy by Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC. The republic of Rome was then ruled by the Senate and its assembly which were put in place as far back as the beginning of the monarchy.
The Roman Republic was governed by a largely complex constitution, which centred on a host of checks and balances. The evolution of the constitution was heavily influenced by the struggle between the aristocracy and the other prominent Romans who were not from the nobility. Early in its history, the republic was controlled by an aristocracy, the patricians, who could trace their ancestry back to the early history of the kingdom. Over time, the laws that allowed these individuals to dominate the government were repealed, and the result was the emergence of a new aristocracy which depended on the structure of society, rather than the law, to maintain its dominance.
Rome also saw its territory expand dramatically during this period, from central Italy to the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries, Rome's influence expanded to cover the whole of Italy. During the next century, Rome's military muscle and developing economy dominated North Africa, Spain, Greece, and what is now southern France. During the last two centuries of the Roman Republic, Rome overcame resistance across the rest of modern France, as well as much of Anatolia and Syria.

Capitol
The Constitution of the Roman Republic was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. The Roman constitution was not formal or even official. It was largely unwritten, uncodified, and constantly evolving.
The Senate
The Senate's ultimate authority derived from the esteem and prestige of the Senate. This esteem and prestige was based on both precedent and custom, as well as the high calibre and prestige of the Senators. The Senate passed decrees, which were called senatus consultum. This was officially "advice" from the Senate to a magistrate. In practice, however, these were usually obeyed by the magistrates.[6] The focus of the Roman Senate was directed towards foreign policy.[7] Though it technically had no official role in the management of military conflict, the Senate ultimately was the force that oversaw such affairs. The senate also managed the civil administration in the city and the town. The requirements for becoming a senator included having at least 100,000 denarii worth of land, being born of the patrician (noble aristocrats) class, and having held public office at least once before. New Senators had to be approved by the sitting members.
Legislative Assemblies
It was the People of Rome – and thus the assemblies – who had the final say regarding the election of magistrates, the enactment of new laws, the carrying out of capital punishment, the declaration of war and peace, and the creation (or dissolution) of alliances. There were two types of legislative assemblies. The first was the comitia ("committees"), which were assemblies of all citizens. The second was the concilia ("councils"), which were assemblies of specific groups of citizens.
Assembly of the Centuries
Citizens were organized on the basis of centuries and tribes. The centuries and the tribes would each gather into their own assemblies. The Comitia Centuriata ("Century Assembly") was the assembly of the centuries. The president of the Comitia Centuriata was usually a consul. The centuries would vote, one at a time, until a measure received support from a majority of the centuries. The Comitia Centuriata would elect magistrates who had imperium powers (consuls and praetors). It also elected censors. Only the Comitia Centuriata could declare war, and ratify the results of a census.[13] It also served as the highest court of appeal in certain judicial cases.

The Conflict of the Orders (367–287 BC)
After the plebeian aedileship had been created, the patricians created the curule aedileship. After the consulship had been opened to the plebeians, the plebeians were able to hold both the dictatorship and the censorship. In 337 BC, the first plebeian praetor was elected.
In 342 BC, two significant laws were passed. One of these two laws made it illegal to hold more than one office at any given point in time. The other law required an interval of ten years to pass before any magistrate could seek reelection to any office.
During these years, the tribunes and the senators grew increasingly close. The senate realised the need to use plebeian officials to accomplish desired goals. To win over the tribunes, the senators gave the tribunes a great deal of power and the tribunes began to feel obligated to the senate. As the tribunes and the senators grew closer, plebeian senators were often able to secure the tribunate for members of their own families. In time, the tribunate became a stepping stone to higher office.
Around the middle of the fourth century BC, the Concilium Plebis enacted the "Ovinian Law". During the early republic, only consuls could appoint new senators. The Ovinian law, however, gave this power to the censors. It also required the censor to appoint any newly elected magistrate to the senate. By this point, plebeians were already holding a significant number of magisterial offices. Thus, the number of plebeian senators probably increased quickly. However, it remained difficult for a plebeian to enter the senate if he was not from a well-known political family, as a new patrician-like plebeian aristocracy emerged.[41] The old nobility existed through the force of law, because only patricians were allowed to stand for high office. The new nobility existed due to the organisation of society. As such, only a revolution could overthrow this new structure.
By 287 BC, the economic condition of the average plebeian had become poor. The problem appears to have centered around widespread indebtedness. The plebeians demanded relief, but the senators refused to address their situation. The result was the final plebeian secession. The plebeians seceded to the Janiculum hill. To end the secession, a dictator was appointed. The dictator passed a law (the "Hortensian Law"), which ended the requirement that the patrician senators must agree before any bill could be considered by the Plebeian Council. This was not the first law to require that an act of the Plebeian Council have the full force of law. The Plebeian Council acquired this power during a modification to the original Valerian law in 449 BC. The significance of this law was in the fact that it robbed the patricians of their final weapon over the plebeians. The result was that control over the state fell, not onto the shoulders of voters, but to the new plebeian nobility.
The plebeians had finally achieved political equality with the patricians. However, the plight of the average plebeian had not changed. A small number of plebeian families achieved the same standing that the old aristocratic patrician families had always had, but the new plebeian aristocrats became as uninterested in the plight of the average plebeian as the old patrician aristocrats had always been


Last edited by Doyler on Wed Nov 24, 2010 2:20 pm; edited 6 times in total
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Re: Information and History of Rome

Post by Jakev2 on Sat Nov 13, 2010 4:15 pm

I think you should check my history, Athens features quite a lot and I want to ensure you are happy with what I've put in there.

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Re: Information and History of Rome

Post by Jakev2 on Thu Nov 25, 2010 2:27 pm

The Roman Republic was governed by a largely complex constitution, which centred on a host of checks and balances.


Yeah, romans were very beurocratic.

The Constitution of the Roman Republic was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. The Roman constitution was not formal or even official. It was largely unwritten, uncodified, and constantly evolving.

One key thing is "The Twelve Tables", the fundamental rights of any Roman citizen. These included things from not being allowed to be executed until after a fair trial (though in reality the justice system was extremely corrupt) to things like if a fruit from a neighbours tree falls in your property, it is yours.

The requirements for becoming a senator included having at least 100,000 denarii worth of land, being born of the patrician (noble aristocrats) class

Not so, many Equites became senators.

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